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Disaster Management In Nigeria: An Appraisal Of Nema

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DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA: AN APPRAISAL OF NEMA

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND ………..………………..…………………………….         1-7

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS…………………………………                7-9

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY……………………………………….               9

SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY……………………………………………                10

SCOPE……………………………………………………………………..               11

LIMITATIONS…………………………………………………………..                12

RESEARCH QUESTIONS................................................               13

ENDNOTES………………………………………………………………....    14-15

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

CONCEPT OF DISASTER...................................................   16-19

DISASTER MANAGEMENT.................................................   19-25

TYPES AND CAUSES OF DISASTERS..................................   25-27

PATTERN AND CONSEQUENCES OF DISASTERS.................    27-29

THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL DEFENCE FORCE (SANDF)

IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT.............................................   29-30

SUMMARY.......................................................................   31-32

ENDNOTES…………………………………………………………………     ..      33-37

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH DESIGN……………………………………………………...    38-39

AREA OF STUDY…………………………………………………………..    39

INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION................................    40

VALIDATION OF INSTRUMENT………………………………….....      ..      40-41

METHOD FOR DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS……....         41

WEAKNESS OF METHODOLOGY………………………………....                41-42

SUMMARY.....................................................................             42-43

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

EVOLUTION OF NEMA....................................................             44-47

FUNCTIONS OF NEMA....................................................             47-49

THE NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE PLAN....................              49-53

HAZARD PROFILE IN NIGERIA........................................             53-56

ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF THE TOP 10 REPORTED

 

NATURAL DISASTERS IN NIGERIA...................................     57-63

EFFORTS OF NEMA IN MANAGING FLOOD DISASTERS

IN NIGERIA...................................................................            64-66

THE BOMB EXPLOSION AT THE AMMUNITION TRANSIT

DEPOT IKEJA CANTONMENT..........................................              66-69

ASSESSMENT OF THE DISASTER RESPONSE...................              70-72

THE BELLVIEW PLANE CRASH.......................................               72-74

ASSESSMENT OF THE DISASTER RESPONSE...................              74-76

CHALLENGES CONFRONTATING NEMA IN EFFECTIVE

MANAGEMENT OF EMERGENCES AND DISASTERS........         76-79

PROSPECTS OF EFFICIENT DISASTER

MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA..........................................                79-81

ENDNOTES.................................................................               82-87

 

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

CONCLUSION...............................................................              88-90

RECOMMENDATIONS...................................................               90-91

ANNEX A.....................................................................              A-1- A-2

ANNEX B....................................................................               B-1-B-2

ANNEX C....................................................................               C-1-C-3

ANNEX D.....................................................................              D-1-D-3

ANNEX E.....................................................................              E-1-E-6

ANNEX F....................................................................                F-1-F-9

REFERENCES

BIBLIOGRAPHY...........................................................                93-102

 

ABSTRACT

1.       The upsurge of disastrous events; both natural and man induced in
the 1990s and 2000s in Nigeria has indeed been worrisome. Despite the establishment of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA)
 in 1999, the management of emergencies and disasters has left much to be desired. Although Nigeria has developed some measures of capacity in disaster response, the country still remains vulnerable to disasters due to a combination of factors, which include technological, environmental, political and climatic change combined with increasing population density. The situation calls for a critical assessment for a more effective, holistic and proactive approach to disaster management in Nigeria. It is against this background that this work set out to appraise the performance of NEMA in managing disasters and emergencies in Nigeria.

 

2.       The study, which is a historical research, relies on both primary and secondary sources of data using mainly unstructured interviews, consultations and case studies as its methods of data collection. Thus, the relevant civil organisations and other major players and stakeholders in the management of disasters were the main sources of primary data. The secondary sources of data were from reputable publications, journals, magazines, reports and the Internet. The data collected were analysed qualitatively leading to some findings and recommendations.

 

3.       The work found out that although NEMA, which is the central coordinating body, has a workable blue print and policies for managing disaster, the body is however faced with a lot of constraints. The major challenge have been that many of the states of the federation do not have the necessary structures such as the Local Government Emergency Agency (LGEA) to enable them prepare adequately for disasters in order to mitigate the effect. These are being compounded by inadequate early warning systems and poor integrated planning amongst others. Above all, the Disaster Response Units (DRU) and Operational Directorates (ODs) are constrained by the lack of expertise to effectively carry out their functions in conformity with the National Disaster Response Plan (NDRP).

 

4.       Based on the research findings, the study highlighted the prospects of effective disaster management, which led to some recommendations. The recommendations included improved information management, need for the early warning systems, integrated planning and coordination among others. This is in order to take disaster management beyond distribution of relief to a more innovative and scientific approach in Nigeria.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

BACKGROUND

1.     Security is a fundamental prerequisite for a stable social order and for sustainable human development. Security is a priority in all human societies and is the responsibility of governments to ensure peace and security within the society. Tragedies on the other hand, occur naturally or are man made and have the ability to disrupt peace and security within a society. Tragedies have been with man for as long as civilization on earth. Its occurrence has been attributed to numerous factors. Tragedies are usually associated with destructive occurrences that leave man with a great sense of loss and despair. Any such incidence that leaves man helpless could be referred to as an emergency.1 Civil strife, sabotage, outbreak of epidemics and aggression are some of the crises that constitute national emergencies.

2.     An emergency can sometimes turn out to be a disaster or crisis requiring urgent action to mitigate the effect of such an occurrence. Disaster, hazard, crisis, catastrophe and upheaval are commonly used to describe such an occurrence.2 Disaster means, “greater or sudden misfortune”.3 It is an event or hazard; natural or man-made, sudden and or progressive, which impacts with such severity that leaves a community helpless and miserable.

3.     Examples of man-made disasters includes the chemical explosion at Union Carbide Corporation Bhopal India in December 1984 that left 4,000 people dead with many still suffering from the attendant health related problems.5 Similarly, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings of the Second World War in Japan, speaks volumes. An instance of natural disasters is the Hurricane Katrina that hit Florida, the United States of American (USA) on 25 August 2005.6 Several other examples of disasters are abound with monumental loss of lives and properties.

4.     Unfortunately, disasters tend to occur more frequently world wide due to increase vulnerability of societies to hazards with the attendant losses when compared to few decades ago. This assertion is supported by the United Nation disaster estimates, which noted that between 1994 and 2003 at
least 2.5 billion people were killed by the effects of disasters worldwide, while about 478,000 people were killed by the effects of natural disasters such as hurricane, earthquakes and floods.7

5.     Africa has equally had a series of painful experiences of disaster in the past. In August 1986, the volcanic eruption in the highland of Western Cameroon led to the death of about 1,700 people while 330 sheep, 300 herds of cattle and thousands of other livestock were also lost.8 Drought as a hazard is no stranger to South Africa, nor is the threat of wild fires, flash floods or other disasters. Examples of these is Laingburg flash floods in 1995 where 173 lives were lost.9 Nigeria has had its own share of national disasters which has impacted negatively on the socio-economic well-being of the nation. These include the Ogunpa flood of 1977 in Dugbe Ibadan city. Over 400 houses and hundreds of lives were lost in the flood incidents between 1960 and 1963 alone.



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