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Evaluation Of The Use Of Instructional Materials In The Teaching And Learning Of English Language In Enugu State Primary Schools
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Evaluation Of The Use Of Instructional Materials In The Teaching And Learning Of English Language In Enugu State Primary Schools

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EVALUATION OF THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN ENUGU STATE PRIMARY SCHOOLS

 

ABSTRACT

This project work was on evaluation of the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of English Language in Enugu state primary schools. The research was set out to evaluate the role instructional materials play in the teaching and learning of English Language in primary schools and the significant effect it has on the academic performance of the pupils in primary schools.The researcher provided answers to six research questions and three null hypotheses were raised to guide the study. The literature reviewed in this study supported the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning/classroom participation is a global concern as many works have been done by various scholars and experts in this topical area. The research instrument was validated by three experts in measurement and evaluation and was used for the construction of final draft of the instrument.  During the study, data were collected by means of questionnaire and it was detected that instructional materials is very important in the teaching and learning of English language in primary schools. During the study, data were statically analyzed using mean (x) scores and standard deviation in analyzing the research questions.

 

Findings from the analysis of data thereby stressed that the use of instructional materials has significant effect on primary school pupils’ academic performance in English language. It was also found that there are effects of using instructional material in teaching English Language in Primary Schools. Furthermore she also stressed that based on findings that the use of instructional materials has significant effect on primary school pupils’ academic performance in English language. Recommendations were therefore made that for effective teaching and learning of English language in primary schools, government should make available the needed instructional materials and make sure that they are adequately used by the teachers. Again, since teaching and learning activities are interesting when instructional materials are used effectively and efficiently in a classroom-teaching situation, there is need for English teachers in the primary school to make instructional materials more interesting in order to arouse the learning interest of their pupils. In conclusion, since, teaching and learning activities are interesting when instructional materials are used effectively and efficiently in a classroom-teaching situation, there is need for English teachers in the primary school to make instructional materials more interesting in order to arouse the learning interest of their pupils.

 

 

             TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page…………………………………………………………….……...….i

Certification………………………………………………………….……….....ii

Dedication………………………………………………………..………….….iii

Acknowledgement………………………………………………..…………….iv

List of Table………………………………………………………………..…...v

Abstract…………………………………………………………………….…..viii

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 

  1. Background of the Study……………………………………………......1
  2. Statement of Problem……………………………………………….…..7
  3. Purpose of the Study.……………………………………………….…..9
  4. Research questions ………………………..……………….…………..10
  5. Hypotheses…………………………………………………….………..10
  6. Significance of the Study………………………………………..……...11
  7. Scope and Delimitation of Study ……………………...……………..…12
  8. Limitation of Studies………………………………….…………….…..13
  9. Operational Definition of Terms…………………………….…….……13
  10.  

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 

2.1       Theoretical Framework………………………………………….…............15

2.1.1   Experimental learning Theory…………………………….…………...15

2.1.2   Cognitive Constructive Theory…………………………..………..…..16

2.2       Conceptual Framework………………………………………..……..…....19

2.2.1 Concept of Instructional Materials………………….…...…………….…19

2.2.2 Availability and adequacy of Instructional Material in Primary School…………………………………………….…….………………21

2.2.3 Instructional materials, time management and participation in science classroom……………………………………….……….………………22

2.2.4   Guidelines and requirement for the use of instructional materials...................................................................................................24

2.2.5   Principles and Requirement for the Selection of Instructional Materials and Participation……………………………………………………………..26

2.2.6 Problems Militating Against Effective Use of English Language Instructional Materials……………………..…………….…………...…28

2.3        Empirical Studies……………………………………………….……………30

2.4       Literature Appraisal…………………………………………………………35

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

 

  1. Research Design……………………………..………………………….36
  2. Area of the Study……………………………………………..……........37
  3. Population of the Study……………………………………………..…..38
  4. Sample size………………..………………………………….…………39
  5. Sampling Techniques………..……………………………………….…40
  6. Instrument for Data Collection……….…………………………………41
  7. Validity of Instrument….…………………………………..…………...41
  8. Reliability of Research Instrument…..……………………..………......42
  9. Method of Data Collection…………………………….…….…….….43
  10. Method of Data Analysis………………………………………….….43

 

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

 

  1. Analysis of Data…………………………………….………………..44
  2. Presentation and Analysis of Results…………………….…………..45
  3. Testing of Hypotheses……………………………………………….58

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  1. Summary of Findings …………………………………..……………60
  2. Conclusion …………………………………………….…..…………60
  3. Recommendation ………………………………….…………………61
  4.  

Appendices..…………………………………………….……………

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

The use of instructional materials in teaching and learning in educational system is indisputable. The teaching of English Language in Nigerian primary schools needs to be properly handled. English language is recognized as an official language in Nigeria apart from our ethnical language, hence, the need to be taught thoroughly if it is to meet the educational and social standard. English language is a language predominantly spoken all over Nigeria. It is the major foreign languages learned in schools (FRN, 2004). Like every other language, the primary aim of teaching English language in schools is to develop communication skills in the learners. To achieve the above objective, the subject must be properly taught in schools. One feature of good teaching of languages is the ability to inculcate in the learners the capability to use the language effectively in oral and written communications. This demands that the teacher should have adequate knowledge of the contents, methodology and appropriate usage of relevant instructional materials.

 

Therefore, for effective teaching and learning of English language in primary schools, the needed instructional materials should be available and be adequately used by the teachers. Teaching and learning activities are interesting when instructional materials are used effectively and efficiently in a classroom-teaching situation. It is necessary for the English teachers in the primary school to use instructional materials in teaching their students in order to make their teaching more interesting and to arouse the learning interest of their student, and sustain their attention for effective learning. The role of instructional materials in teaching and learning process cannot be over emphasized.

 

The World Book Encyclopedia Americana indicates that one of the principles teachers have to continually bear in mind is that humans learn through his senses. Some learn better by one or more senses, to some seeing is believing, to others, the sense of hearing, touch, smell and taste dominate in acquiring knowledge. Hence for the intended learning to take place, the teacher must communicate effectively with the learner. Instructional materials such as television, motion pictures, carefully prepared tape sequence, helps the teacher in extending the learners‟ horizon of experience. It also helps the teacher in providing meaningful information to the learner. When learners make use of resources in the school library, educational technology center, and in their school environment, they get meaningful information that will help them solve their problems. Their interaction with primary visual sources (real objects) will also provide them with useful information.  In order to achieve effectiveness and efficiency during instructional process between the teacher and the pupils, the classroom teacher must try as much as possible to illustrate the subject matter with appropriate instructional materials to the learner. This is done by using real things/object/technology to represent real life situation. In view of this, Onwuka (1981) maintain that common sense taught us that in the present phase of development the child will be faced with insurmountable difficulties if left to learn unaided. Instructional materials stimulate learners’ interest.

 

It is to be noted that when the child’s interest is stimulated, the teacher has to sustain such interest. The teacher needs to seek better, more lifelong realistic functional and significant problem solving activities for learners to sustain their aroused zeal and interest. For instance, when a classroom teacher takes her pupil out for field work, their interest will likely be stimulated. Instructional materials are used as checks to the teacher’s knowledge and means of transmission. Instructional materials help both the teacher and the learner to overcome physical limitation during the presentation of subject matter. For example the use of projector, slide, tape and programs in presenting information help greatly in overcoming physical difficulties.

 

Nwoji (2002) asserted that instructional materials assist a teacher to transmit to a learner the facts, skills, attitude and knowledge that aid the understanding and appreciation of concepts. Instructional material serves as diagnostic and remedial tools for the teacher. When instruction becomes individualized and practical, teachers are placed in a better position to observe, analyze learning process and learning outcome. Instructional materials like audio-visual materials (television, video, slides films and film strips, projector) heighten motivation for learning through its concreteness and interest, provides freshness and variety in teaching learning process. This is because these appeal to the students or pupils at variety of abilities. A systematic use of audio-visual materials can make the subject matter clearer and appealing to the pupils of diversified background and different abilities. Thus, audio-visual materials can foster effective learning not only for the child who reads and writes easily but also for the pupil who is not verbally gifted.

 

Audio-visual materials encourage active participation, give needed reinforcement, widen the range of pupil’s experiences, ensure order and continuity of thought and also improve the effectiveness of other materials. Also Visual materials like, diagram, charts, photographs, slides, amongst others present more realistic approach in education and equally provide opportunity for class participation in groups or individually and when used, many senses are appealed to which will result to increase in the learner’s performance. Some of these instructional materials are very good for the preservation of records and other documents. They enrich learning and make it more pleasurable.

The use of instructional materials is an eye opener to the teacher and promotes their better planning and scheduling. It gives the teacher enough guidance, co-ordination, supervision and more time for correction.

 

Oyeyemi (1991) discussed the inherent advantages of improvisation and use of instructional materials. Thus, it makes lessons real, useful for the ever teeming population of pupils/students in our schools. He stated that when materials used are easily available within the environment, the teacher plans, uses and evaluates the materials and such materials can easily be improved upon and can be used efficiently and effectively since they are designed to meet specific instructional objectives. Instructional material brightens the classroom and brings variety in the class lesson. They said the slow learn to brighten up and bright students/pupils learn faster. They are very effective in establishing sense or spirit of team work among learners. For example the use of computer during instructional process. Cook (1995) noted that with the computer relevant aspects of the target communicative situation can be modeled and the pupils can take in that which they are likely to meet latter. Instructional materials spur learners to learn and develop better and effective skills. Instructional materials help to promote the understanding of teaching and learning process, among others.

 

In Enugu Metropolis many State owned primary schools lack instructional materials for teaching and learning purposes. Noticeably, not even one school in Enugu metropolis could boast of being well equipped with necessary instructional materials (SUBE, 2015). Where these instructional materials exist at all, the rate at which school administrators and classroom teachers use them is not encouraging. This has become a problem to primary school authorities, such as State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB), Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC), Universal Basic Education Board (UBEB), and parents too. The primary school administrators have lamented bitterly about the inadequate provision of instructional materials in their schools. According to them, this has been the cause of poor management of instructional materials by classroom teachers during teaching-learning process. As a result of this pupils are denied the opportunity of learning with these materials in the classroom



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