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Impact Of Colour Representation In Newspaper Advertising (A Case Study Of Vanguard Advertisement)
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Colour is the visual impression registered by the rating of the eye when struck by light. There are seven colours in the band, these are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Light is therefore the source of all colours. “when we see a red rose, we see it only because light reflects from it into our eyes, making the rose and its colour discernible colour then, is a property of the light waves reaching our eyes not of the object seen.

          There are principally six colours made up of three primary colours blues, red, and yellow and three secondary colours orange, green and violet. This notwithstanding, physics however, classify all colours of the light band which includes indigo as primary colours of light.

          The secondary colours are so called because they are hybrid of the primary colours for instance orange is obtained by mixing yellow and red, green by mixing yellow and blue and violet (purple by mixing red and blue.

According to McCann Erickson, Inc, the advertising agency that develops coca-cola nationals campaigns said that advertising is “truth well told”. This philosophy is echoed by coke’s management . Today, we all have strong concepts of what adverting is and we also tend to have very strong opinions and prejudices about it. Definitions of advertising are many and varied. It may be defined as “communication process, a marketing process, an economic and social process, a public relations process, or an information and persuasion process” depending on the point of view. Advertising is also the non-personal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through various media.

There is a trend in advertising these days in which various colours are in now being used in newspaper, magazine and television advertisements. Research has shown that advertisements presenting in colours are attractive and infact whips appatice. To be specific, the vanguard newspaper has been the major promoter of this trend and it is now generally believed by marketers that the impact of colour in advertising has positive effect on the quantum of products presented to the public of colours.

This study is however aimed at establishing if there is such correlation.





  1. Background  of study
  2. Objectives of study
  3. Significant of the study
  4. Research question
  5. Research hypothesis
  6. Conceptual and operational definition
  7. Limitation of the study


  1.  Review of literature

2.1     Summary of literature review

2.2     Sources of literature



3.0     Methodologies

  1.           Research method
  2.           Research sample
  3.           Research design
  4. Measuring instrument
  5.  Pre test
  6.  Data collection
  7.  Data analysis
  8.  Expected results




  1. Data analysis
  2. Results
  3. Discussion of findings




  1.           Summary
  2.           Recommendation for further study







In this scientific era of mass production, mass communication and mass consumption, advertising serve as an important factor between someone who has something to sell and someone who needs something. It is therefore been defined as “the means by which we make known what we have to sell or what we want to buy”.

          It has also been defined as any paid form of non-personal presentation of ideas goods or services by an identifiable sponsor with predominant use, made of mass communication.

          Furthermore, the association of advertising as “any paid form of non-personal communication intended to promote or create awareness for individual products or service by an identifiable sponsor”.

          Advertising is often characterized as a means of selling to the masses, this is because “advertisement can change buying habits and it’s entertaining features are always interesting to match.”

But as Daniel S. Warner professor Emeritus, school of communication, university of Washington puts it in his book (1980, 41) “Adverts cannot change buying habit in deplorable situation”. He says that the greatest advert in the whole world cannot soil a product nor convince consumers to buy products which they feel costs too much, poorly package or in some other ways, do not live up to the expectation.

          This leads to the popular misconception that advertising is directed at everyone. But obviously, people do not have the same scale of values and are not interested in the same things. Therefore, no product is consumed by any one at the same rate and no advertisement is equally appealing to anyone.

          Some products universal appeal more than others and some advertisers have made markets than others, but each advertisement succeeds who can be reached on a common meeting ground. Also, to effectively convey advert sales message to this group, advertisers are free to choose from any of the advertising media-electronic or point to intensifying advert reach.

Traditionally, Nigerian display their goods such as yam tubers in excellent rows allowing sufficient quantity of the soil or mud to beautify that tuber. The mud is excellent potential sales point as it serves to address the tubers source areas in important way of portraying the tests. Adding to that in our local retail outlets, sellers consciously engage in attractive display of products or goods arrangements to serve as attention gather and help establish identity.

          Colour has therefore been playing a unique role in advertising. Colour is not only a thing of beauty to individuals, it is naturally striking and compelling to uses generally or individually.

          In as much as this topic deals with the impact of colour representation in Newspaper advertising on consumers as it concern the Daily sun newspaper, it cannot be a misnormal to state that advertising is focused in the face of conflicting completion of text. Photograph and interplay reader. There is there no need for colour reprsentation to aid quick recognition and readership which consciously design advert in colour to influence people’s buying behaviour change and that there would be greater impact on the readers.

          The purpose of the study is to find out how colour of a product advertised in newspaper can affect our buying decision and habit, quite several studies have tried finding out the influence advertisement have on consumers but not specifically that by newspaper colour.

          Why is it that people buy one good and ignore others? Has this any relevance to colour representation? These undoubtedly are going to form the basis for this study.



While you cannot at this juncture, state categorically how this colour representation in advertisement  influences or creates impact on people. I have observed with keen interest, the power and impact of colour combination in any display with work on people. It is made of the fact dressing or other wise it is observation that can be made on the face of it and not as a scientific observation, it has contributed with some other factors in this decision to research this particular topic.

          It has been observed that people reach to colour adverts. This point not exclusively to only one product but to all, hence many people have experienced their interest in one colour advert layout or the other, the use to use in newspaper.

          However, before any conclusion could be drawn on this questions of the impact of colour representation in newspaper advertising, it would be necessary and important to look into findings of others on this topic if any.



Colour representation through the multiple use of colours intensifies the attention catching of the readers in advertisements. However it is associated with certain problems.

          The use of colours work as a trick in advertisement. In essence, the product seen, colourful and attractive may not have good quality. Despite the fact that full colours of a product in advertisement is attractive, it might be as well deceitful in the sense that the product actually does not reach expectation. (quality).

          Stressing further, because of the huge amount involved in colour representation, advertisers want to find out if the outcome justifies the efforts. In other words, it affects the buyers due to the high price of the product.

          By and large, colour representation of a product is a distraction to attention, being that readers are influenced over a product which ordinarily they would not like to buy. Moreso, some readers are increasingly conscious of their taste, and in order to have better value for their money, tend to choose the right product that will satisfy their unique, not withstanding the colourful advert of the product.


As the purpose of this study, solution would be sought to questions raised in the research, outlined in this study. These questions will form the congent concern of this study and solution preferred would depend on the analysis of research data collected.

          Apart from that, however this study will deal on reaction of newspaper readers to products whose adverts appear in colour, it would be also ascertain whether such colour representation in newspaper advertisement influence the buying habit and decisions of readers. The aim of adverts must appear in colour to achieve the aim for it.



The study lie sin many facts of human endeavour, especially in the advertisement world. Responsible for that is because virtually all products are given one form of advertising or the other.        Colour representation gives the impact of healthy competition among advertisers. Virtually all products are exposed to the same readers through the same newspaper, however, of peculiar interest is that although those products may have the same quality they can come in different packages, designs and colours so that manufacturers of the same product devices the skill on personal colours, package and design. The recommendation is entangled to be meaningful to students and other research fellows who may wish to undertake study on this topic.



Does the beauty of a product presented in colour advertisement influence people’s buying decision?

How can we prefer colour advertisement to make them more effective and attractive?

Does colour advertisement created essentially to gain high attention and aid prospect identification of product represented in their actual colours?

Does the colour representation of product in advertisement enhance readability?




This states that “people receive information directly from the mass media and not through intermediary”. It also state that reaction in individual is influenced by the media. Therefore the bullet theory of the readers and the effects of colour representation is saying that an individual is affected by the colourful features of that product and in essence changes their buying habit. Any reaction to a mass media is therefore seen as an individual experience rather than collective experience.

          Under uses and gratification “professor William Stephenson’s theory is part of a wider body and research and theory uses we make of Vanguard newspaper and what gratification we gain from colour representation.

          The Vanguard newspaper in carrying our colour representation in advertising have one way or the other of making an impact on the readers and the product as well. It should be noted that the impact it has on the audience is measured greatly on the readers since you are directly receiving the information and not though intermediary.

          Applying professor William Stephenson’s theory, colour representation of a product in advertising serves as entertaining and informational qualities and ideas and services to the readers.

          As a member of the readers or any individual, a lot of impact is gained through colour representation of a product or services.



It is important to define the study as the following:

That the study did not study other areas of advertisements but only dealt specifically with colour representation in newspaper advertising.

That is did not study non-regular readers of Vangaurd.

     However, the solution to some of the variables

     mentioned above could be general inferences of




IMPACT OF ADVERTISING:  The power effect advertising have on the readers.

COLOUR REPRESENTATION: Photographic reproduction of a product in full colour (in a newspaper advertisement).

PREFERENCE: The greater interest in or desire for something else.

ADVERT: To tell the public about a product or service in order to encourage people to buy or to use ie. To attract more readers.

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