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Isolation And Characterization Of fungi Mould Associated In The Spoilage Of Bread
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Isolation And Characterization Of  fungi Mould Associated  In The Spoilage Of  Bread


This project topic: Isolation And Characterization Of  fungi Mould Associated  In The Spoilage Of  Bread comprises of its Abstract, table of content, introduction, literature review, methodology, conclusion, recommendation, references. it possses detailed explanation on microbial spoilage of bread, causes of bread spoiloage, bread spoilage organism.






This project work which is all about isolation and characterization of mould associated in the spoilage of bread, explain the kind or type of fungal organisms that are responsible for the spoilage on contamination of bread. Bread is one of the staple foods in the world and it is recognized as a semi perishable commodity. Usually the spoilage of bread is due to improper storage. The fungi associated with the spoilage of bread were studied. Mold spoilage of bread is due to post processing contamination. Twenty bread samples were collected from different shops in Artizan market. The fungi involved during spoilage were isolated and identified based on the cultural and morphological characteristics using the standard keys available.


Initially the molds namely

Mucor sp and Rhizopus sp were found to be the cause of bread spoilage. This was followed by a spergillus sp and Penicillium sp. In this study

Rhizopus sp was found to be the most common fungus during the spoilage of bread.

 The infestation of fungal organism on bread depends on the kind and numbers of the agent present and upon the environment about them. This statement makes it clear that micro organism infest foods having suitable environment condition for their microbial activity. This project work is centered on knowing the fungal micro-organisms that infests bread which  the isolation and characterization of the fungal organisms, the source of contamination a known standardized system called hazard analysis critical control point which  ensures hygienically produced breads. The material and method email the collection of bread samples from five different shops AT Artisan market, Enugu, the method used is the isolation technique and the identification of filamention fungi and yeast by wet mount and fluorescence microscopy. The result obtained were gotten by counting the colonies grown on the culture medium (Nutrient agar) and the mean of duplicate  was then calculated, some fungal micro organisms seen viewed unbder the microscope are as follows;


Mucon SpP

Aspergillus     flarus

Aspergillus fumigatus

Penicillium Spp

Rhizopus Spp





1.       Usually the mold spoilage of bread is due to post processing contamination. Bread loaves fresh out of the oven are free of molds or mold spores due to their thermal inactivation during the baking process (Ponte and Tsen, 1978). Bread becomes contaminated after baking, from the mold spores present in the atmosphere surrounding loaves during cooling, slicing, packaging and storage. Most common source of microbial spoilage is due to mold growth. According to the previous studies (Banwart, 2004) bread mold like Mucor and Rhizopus are found to grow first during bread spoilage. This is followed by some other fungi like Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium sp. Among these Penicillium sp is the most common one though

Aspergillus sp may be of greater significance in tropical countries (Legan, 1993).


 Food can be contaminated with spoilage on pathogenic organisms (micro). Infestations of these fungal organisms spoil the product so that it is not fit to eat; it also changes the taste so that the product is not desirable. The concept of food infestation of fungal organisms is based on the consipteration for fiutres of consumption. Infestation is defined as the over presence alone has led to its growth and microbial activity. Pathogenic organisms however can cause food poisoning. Food poisoning can arise through infatuation of food by organisms (micro) which secrete toxins which B their consumed. The cost of fungal infested bread resulting to spoilage is also great with loss of money due to wastage of the raw materials. Also considering the usefulness of this product in the community with the management of money being spent it has also helped in the sense that since it is regarded as a fast food it is being bought and consumed directly without further preparations done.  Effect of contaminated bread in the society can lead to an epidemic of gastrointestinal disorder where by that particular environment that consumed the contaminate bread become affected there by developing stomach upset. As a result of this a lot of consideration should be given to breads that are sent into the community to be sold and this is done by the standardized system called HACCP ie hazards Analysis critical control point. This method is now generally considered as a choice for ensuring safety of foods (jay 1996 de Boer and Beumer 1999) hazzard analysis critical control point involves identifying places in the production process where hazzard could occur. i.e. the CCp (critical control point” and putting monitoring procedures in place to prevent these hazards occurring even with this system in place samples still need to be tested  for the presence of micro organism.


Detection of most of the micro organisms requires growth of the organism on selective media which can take a number of days from isolation to identification. These methods are sensitive and give qualitative information on the number and nature of the micro organism. Present in a food sample. However, conventional methods require several days to produce result because they rely on the ability of micro organisms to multiply to visible colonies (De Boser and Beumer 1999).  Presentation of bread commonly involves the use of propionates and sorbates and sometime henzoates. Preservatives are added to retain on to increase the shelf life by preventing the micro-organism responsible for the contamination of that food. There alter natives to preservatives have been bought also. The chief types of microbial spoilage of bread as a result of fungal infestation will also studied which is moldiness. Rapines is also  another type of bread spoilage but unfortunately it wont be studies due to the fact that it is caused by bacterial organism which unfortunately is not a fugal organisms and as a result is not in the  scope of study for this research work. Also spoilage not so common called CHALKY BREAD caused by yeast like Fungi, will be diseased.



This project is based on the isolation and characterization of mould associated in for the spoilage of bread. To examine the species of fungi that infests bread at room temperature.



H0-filamentous fungi and yeast has no effect on bread.

H1 – filamentous fungi and yeast are responsible for spoilage of bread when infested.



Problems encountered by the society as a result of the consumption of coutaininated bread infested with fungal organism art circulation in the market places are related health wise, in the sease that when contaminated. Breads are eaten; it leads to caster or intestinal disorder by some fungal organism which is a result of deposited toxins. This can lead to an epidemic, when a batch of count ammoniated breading in circulation.



The justification of this research study is to  ensure that a well prepared baked bread devoid of fungal growth is being circulated on sold. It is  also carried out on the basic of selling well baked breads uncontaminated so as to avoid any don’t of food poisoning associated with the ingestion of bread.

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