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Kidnapping In Nigeria: Implications And Challenges For National Security
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KIDNAPPING IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS AND CHALLENGES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY

ABSTRACT

This study examined the implications and challenges of kidnapping for national security. The objective of the study was to among other things identify, the causes of kidnapping in Nigeria as well as its implications for the national security and the strategies to curb it. The studies discuss varying views on the concept of kidnapping and national security. Kidnapping started in Nigeria as a result of the agitations in Niger Delta to get the attention of the Government and the International Communities Concerning their plight        The methodology involved the analysis of data from both primary and secondary sources. The study was limited to the Niger Delta and South Eastern state of the Country. The research questions were answered after the analysis of the Data. The study identified political, social and economic implications of military for National Security. The study also brought to the fore the salient point that bad political leadership, poverty and unemployment  are some of the factors that have encouraged kidnapping in Nigeria. The study apart from identifying the implications of kidnapping for national security, it also proffered some solutions. One of which is the Government should address the problems of poverty and unemployment in the country.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION                                                            

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW                                                PAGE(S)

GENERAL………………………..…………………......       11 - 12

CONCEPT OF PROCUREMENT…….……………….       12 - 13

CONCEPT OF CENTRALISED PROCUREMENT….       13 - 14

DETERMINANTS OF EQUIPMENT

PROCUREMENT…………………………………………     14 - 15

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CENTRALISED

PROCUREMENT SYSTEM AND THE ARMED

FORCES…………………………………………………..     15  - 16

SUMMARY………………………………………………..     16 - 17

ENDNOTES………………………………………………      18 - 19

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                            PAGE(S)

RESEARCH DESIGN…………………………………..       20 - 21

SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES…………..      21

INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION………………     21 - 22

POPULATION……………………………………………..    22

VALIDATION OF INSTRUMENT………………………..    22 - 23

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION……….……………    23

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS………………………...    23 - 24

WEAKNESS OF THE METHODOLOGY……………….    24

SUMMARY…………………………………………………    24 - 25

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS                     PAGE(S)

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………     26

DATA PRESENTATION…………………………………     26 - 27

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION………….      28 - 30

FINDINGS ON THE PROBLEMS OF CURRENT

CENTRALISED PROCUREMENT SYSTEM…………      30 - 34

AN OVERVIEW OF PROCUREMENT SYSTEM

OF SELECTED COUNTRIES…………………………..     34 - 35

PROCUREMENT SYSTEM IN SOUTH AFRICA….....     35 - 36

PROCUREMENT SYSTEM IN INDIA………………….     37 - 41

PROSPECTS OF CURRENT CENTRALISED

PROCUREMENT SYSTEM……………………………..     41 - 45

STRATEGIES FOR THE ENHANCEMENT OF

CENTRALISED PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR

THE  NIGERIAN ARMED FORCES……………………     45

INITIATION OF IDEA…………………………………….     46 - 47

PROPOSED PROCUREMENT PLANNING

COMMITTEE…………………………………………….      47

PROPOSED JOINT PROCUREMENT CELL………..       48 - 49

PROPOSED DEFENCE PROCUREMENT

COUNCIL…………………………………………………      49 - 51

PROPOSED PROCUREMENT PROCESS…………..      52

PROPOSED PROCUREMENT MONITORING

COMMITTEE……………………………………………..     52 - 53

OTHER STRATEGIES…………………………………..     54 - 57

ENDNOTES………………………………………………      58 - 59

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                PAGE(S)

CONCLUSION ………………………………………….       60 - 62

RECOMMENDATIONS …………………………………     62 - 64

ANNEX A………………………………………………….     A-1-A-4

ANNEX B………………………………………………….     B-1 – B-3

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    GENEERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          On 23 Oct 09, Paul and Rachel Chandler, a couple from Tunbridge, Kent in Great Britain went for a sailing adventure from Tanzania to Seychelles. Midway into their course, they were ambushed by some pirates from Somalia and held hostage for 388 day; approximately 13 months. The pirates later demanded for a ransom      of 1million United States of America (USA) dollars as the condition for the release of the couple. They eventually released them on 14 Nov 10 after the last part of the required ransom was paid.

          Prior to the 1990s, incidences of kidnapping and hostage taking were among the news items that were reported in the Nigerian news media that happened in other parts of the world. That time, Nigerian society was relatively secured and her national security was not facing the challenges of kidnapping or hostage taking. Today however, kidnapping has become one of the challenges to Nigeria’s national security.

          Kidnapping is the act of taking a person against his or her will or from the control of a parent or guardian, from one place to another usually through violence, force, threat or intimidation under circumstances in which the person so taken does not have freedom of movement, will or decision. Although it is not necessary that the purpose be criminal, the capture usually involves some related criminal act such as holding the person for ransom, sexual and or sadistic abuse.2 The word ‘kidnap’ originated from Scandinavian language ‘kid’ which means child. Kidnapping originally meant stealing a child, but now the      concept applies to adults also.(Gerald Hill http//legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com)

          The history of kidnapping in Nigeria is traceable to the Niger Delta regions where over 80 per cent of Nigeria’s crude oil is deposited.3 The exploration and exploitation of this crude oil led to the influx of expatriates into that region. These expatriates form part of the staff of oil companies like Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) which are involved in the oil exploration.

 

          The oil exploration in Niger Delta led to gas flaring and oil spillages into the seas. This affected the source of livelihood and occupation of the people of Niger Delta which was mainly fishing and other aquatic cultures. Many of the youths of this area lost their source of livelihood and could not have alternative means of livelihood especially through gainful employment in the oil servicing companies in their neighbourhoods. Furthermore, government did not do much in developing the region. Apparently, government’s presence in terms of good road networks, pipe-borne water, good schools and hospitals were lacking. Accordingly, the people of Niger Delta felt marginalized by the government. Some of their leaders like Ken Saro Wiwa and 8 others, who spoke against this supposed injustice and marginalization, were killed by the instruments of the state.This situation led to the emergence of various armed militant groups in Niger Delta agitating for control of the resources in their land. These militant groups included Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND), Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force (NDPVF) and Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP). These groups used various means to draw the attention of government and the international community to the deplorable condition in which they believe they lived. Their activities included disruptions of oil work by setting oil wells ablaze and taking expatriate oil workers hostage.

­­

          One of such incidents took place on 31 Jul 00. On this date,   about 100 militant youths held 165 oil workers hostage till 5 Aug in an oil drilling rig owned by SPDC in Ekeremo Local Government Area (LGA) of Bayelsa State.5 Hostage taking at this stage was mainly a way of getting government’s attention. Later on however, the militants started asking for ransom, before they would free their victims. This marked the genesis of known cases of kidnapping in Nigeria.

          Today, kidnapping is no longer one of the ways the militants drew government’s attention to the deplorable conditions of living in Niger Delta. The menace of kidnapping is now reported across the length and breadth of Nigeria from the East, West and North to the Southern parts. Victims of kidnapping now cut across expatriates, politician, civil servants, actors, industrialists, clerics, journalists, women and children. Kidnapping in Nigeria has become pandemic. Some of the many reasons for its spread might be economic others political, while some could be religious. Whatever the reason for kidnapping, its implication and challenges for national security has become

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