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Leadership And Good Governance In Nigeria: Issues And Prospects For National Development

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LEADERSHIP AND GOOD  GOVERNANCE  IN  NIGERIA: ISSUES  AND  PROSPECTS  FOR  NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

ABSTRACT

1.      The phenomenon of leadership and good governance has assumed greater interest in Africa. With the return of democratic governance to Nigeria, the study of the relationship between leadership and good governance for national development has become an imperative. The study looks at the challenges and prospects associated with leadership and good governance in Nigeria within the first decade of the Fourth Republic.

2.      The study discovered that political leadership has been seriously constrained by corruption, electoral fraud, mismanagement of resources and poor infrastructural development. The study discovered the following challenges as hampering the institutionalization of good governance in Nigeria: delayed prosecution of corrupt officials and lack of grassroots development. Others are abuse of the electoral process, insecurity, negative orientation to governance and lack of patriotic politicians. The strategies proffered by the study to mitigate the challenges include; introduction of electronic voting system and proving of human and material security. Others are removal of immunity clause on political office holders and national re-orientation. 

3.      The field survey method and secondary analysis were used for the study. The field survey method was to obtain public perception on the subject matter using open ended questionnaires and unstructured interviews. The questionnaires were administered to respondents within the public and private sector as well as to students. The data obtained were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively to determine how leadership can be directed towards ensuring good governance in Nigeria for national development.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION                                                                  PAGE(S)

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY……………………….    1 -  7

STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM……………..  8 - 9

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY…………………………..  10

HYPOTHESIS/ASSUMPTION……………………………   12

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY………………………...  12-13

SCOPE OF THE STUDY………………………………….   13

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY…………………………….  13-14

ENDNOTES ………………………………………………… 15-16

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW                                                  PAGE(S)

THE CONCEPT OF FOREIGN POLICY………….......      17 - 18

THE CONCEPT OF NATIONAL INTEREST………….     18 - 23

THE CONCEPT OF POWER…….……………………..     28 - 32

THE CONCEPT OF GLOBALISATION…….………….     32 - 36

ENDNOTES……………………………………………….     37 - 39

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                    PAGE(S)

INTRODUCTION………………………………………...      40 - 43

OBJECTIVES OF NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY……    43-48

NIGERIAN NATIONAL COMPONENT POWERS AS

DETERMINANTS AND INSTRUMENT OF NIGERIAN

FOREIGN POLICY……………………………………….     48-55

NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE NEW

INTERNATIONAL ORDER  …………………………….     55-62

DEBT CANCELLATION…………………………………     62-65

PROMOTION OF GLOBAL PROSPERITY AND PEACE... 65-68

ENDNOTE..……………………………………………….      69-70        

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS                 

PROSPECTS OF NIGERIA’S FOREIGN  POLICY…….. 71-72

PROBLEMS OF NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY……….. 72-77

FUTURE PROSPECTS OF NIGERIA’S FOREIGN

POLICY………………………………………………………..          77-81 

ENDNOTES…………………………………………………  82

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                                                                                                                                                    

SUMMARY………………………………………………                 83-85

CONCLUSION ………………………………………….       85- 87

RECOMMENDATIONS ………………………………..       88 - 94

ANNEX A…………………………………………………       A-1 – A-9

ANNEX B…………………………………………………       B-1 – B-5

REFERENCES                                                                      

BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………...    95 –100

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The quest for quality leadership and good governance is the aspiration of citizens in most countries of the world. This is because the task of harnessing scarce resources in pursuit of human and national development is related to the quality and output of leadership (Richardson, 2008, P.3). The history of the development of great nations suggests that versatile leaders played a vital role in the transformation of their societies through good governance. Thus, the quality of citizens’ life and the overall development of a nation is a reflection of governance in the nation.

 

In United States of America (USA) for example, Abraham Lincoln stands out because of the courageous leadership he displayed during the 1861-1865 American Civil War (Norton, <http://home.att.net/rjnorton/Lincoln87.html>).This led to the preservation of the Union, vindication of democracy and abolition of slavery. These great feats were achieved by determination in pursuit of a more perfect and equal Union (Ibid, P.17). Lincoln eventually left a legacy being upheld in the USA till date as a good model of democracy and enduring governance.

 

 

                    Similarly, the unification of East and West Germany could be

credited to Otto Von Bismarck, one of the most significant political figures in German history. His efforts were fast-tracked by Chancellor Helmut Kohl, who ensured the enthronement of a federal system of government in a unified Federal Republic of Germany      in 1990 (Germany, http://www.mongabay.com/reference/country-studies/germany/Government.html). This  was  considered  cardinal to  a stable  constitutional  democracy  and  good  governance  in  the  Country.

 

In China, Mao Tse-Tung set the stage that transformed China from a peasant economy to a major economic giant in the world. As a visionary leader, his primary goals were to catch up and surpass the rest of the world in economy, sports, science, technology and defence. Today, China is the fastest growing economy in the world with an average annual growth rate of about 9 percent in the last 2 decades (Chow and Li, 1952-2010). These accounts demonstrate that with visionary leadership and good governance, a nation could experience remarkable improvement and success in its overall development.

 

The continent of Africa has also produced visionary leaders who have contributed positively in the development of their countries. Nelson Mandela of South Africa holds sway as one of the greatest figures of black emancipation with his history of anti-apartheid struggle. Eventually, he was honored as the first democratically elected President of South Africa in 1994     (Mandela, 1994, Pp. 746-747). His exemplary leadership symbolizes the struggle of oppressed people around the world. He was able to steer South Africa towards sustainable development and good governance ideals, epitomized by smooth political transition.

 

In our country, issues of leadership and good governance have been of great concern since attainment of independence        in 1960. Despite abundant human and natural resources, corruption and mismanagement of public wealth have hampered the        pursuit of national development in the Country (http://www.nationencyclopedia.com/economies/Africa/Nigeria.overviewofteheconomy.htm.). Most Nigerian leaders are accused of lacking the requisite vision, passion and character for political leadership (Dike, 2009). The consequence is that despite Nigeria rich resource endowment, she has consistently ranked low in various international assessments on human development and good governance.

 

The United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index (UNDP-HDI) in its 2007/2008 report ranked Nigeria 158 out of 177 countries (New Partnership for Africa’s Development, 2008, P.67). Nigeria was also ranked 11 out of 16 in West Africa in the 2009 Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) (Obi, http://www.businessday). It is estimated that about 70 percent of 150 million Nigerians live below poverty level of less than one US Dollar per day (Nnebe, 1999-2007 Vol.2, P). These low economic and development indices have been attributed to poor leadership and absence of good governance in Nigeria.

 

In this context, the leadership question’ vis-à-vis good governance has generated series of topical discussions at different policy and academic fora. This research is, therefore, motivated by the quest to address the question of leadership and its implication on good governance in Nigeria for national development. Thus, with a view to proffering measures that would strengthen leadership and ensure good governance in the country.

 

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM   

 

Since 1960, Nigeria has experienced persistent crisis associated with political leadership which has adversely affected the outcome of

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