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Solar Technology: An Alternative Source Of Energy For National Development

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SOLAR TECHNOLOGY: AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY...............................  1-5

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.............................. 5-7

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY...................................  7

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY............................          8

SCOPE OF THE STUDY......................................            8-9

LIMITATION....................................................       9

ENDNOTES......................................................       10-11

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………….         12-13

SOLAR ENERGY AND TECHNOLOGY………….........          13-14

SOLAR TECHNOLOGY: TYPE AND METHODS

OF STORAGE……………………………………………………         14-16

TYPES OF SOLAR TECHNOLOGY……………………….          16-17

PHOTO VOLTAIC TECHNOLOGY……………………….          17

CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER…………………….          18

THE SOLAR POWER TECHNOLOGY – HOW IT

WORKS…………………………………………………………..          18-19

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY

TECHNOLOGY…………………………………………………           19-20

SOLAR TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION FOR

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT……………………………...           21-22

SOLAR LIGHT…………………………………………………           22-23

SOLAR THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES…………………..           24-25

COOKING………………………………………………………           25

PRESS HEAT………………………………………………….           25-26

SOLAR CHEMICAL…………………………………………            26

SOLAR VEHICLE…………………………………………….            26-28

ELECTRICITY GENERATION……………………………            28

ELECTRICITY AND POWER GENERATION

IN NIGERIA…………………………………………………...           29-40

SOLAR ENERGY AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE

OF ENERGY FOR NATIONAL

DEVELOPMENT…………………………………………………         41-44

SUMMARY……………………………………………………….          44-46

ENDNOTES………………………………………………………         47-51

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH DESIGN.........................................       52

POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE……………………..           52-53

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES…………………………………           53-54

VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT…………………           54

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS………………………….           54-55

TYPE AND SOURCE OF DATA…………………………..          55

TECHNIQUE OF DATA COLLECTION………………….          55-56

IDENTIFICATION OF VARIABLES……………………..          56

STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS………………………….           57

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

DATA PRESENTATION……………………………………….. 58-61

DATA ANALYSIS………………………………………………... 62-69

ADVANTAGES OF SOLAR ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

AND ITS USE FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT……..        69-70

SUMMARY………………………………………………………..         70-71

ENDNOTES……………………………………………………….         72

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

CONCLUSION……………………………………………………         73-74

RECOMMENDATIONS………………………………………..         75-76

ANNEX A………………………………………………………….         A-1

 

REFERENCES

BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………         77-81

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Serial

Title of Figure

Page No

(a)

(b)

(c)

1.

Nigeria’s Primary Energy Deposits

30

2.

Energy Consumption in Nigeria (Tons of Coal Equivalent-TCE)

31-32

3.

 Electricity Plants Capacity Utilisation in Nigeria (2000)

33

4.

Electricity output and Distribution in Nigeria 

35

5.

The Towns and Distribution of Targeted Respondents in each Town

58

6.

Academic Qualification of Respondents

60

7.

Answers of Respondents on how they view the Present State of Power Generation and Supply in Nigeria

63

8.

Opinion of Respondents on Solar Energy being a Perfect Alternative Source of Energy in Nigeria

66

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Serial

Title of Figure

Page No

(a)

(b)

(c)

1.

Bar Chart Showing Nigeria’s Primary Energy Deposits

31

2.

Bar Chart Showing Energy Consumption in Nigeria (Tons of Coal Equivalent-TCE)

32

3.

 Bar Chart Showing Electricity Plants Capacity Utilisation in Nigeria (2000)

34

4.

Bar Chart Showing Electricity output and Distribution in Nigeria

36

5.

Pie Chart Showing The Towns and Distribution of Targeted Respondents in each Town

59

6.

Bar Chart Showing Academic Qualification of Respondents

61

7.

Bar Chart Showing Answers of Respondents on how they view the Present State of Power Generation and Supply in Nigeria

64

8.

Bar Chart Showing Opinion of Respondents on Solar Energy being a Perfect Alternative Source of Energy in Nigeria

67

9.

Annual Global Production of Photovoltaic Cells Indicating the High Demand for Solar Technology

68

 

 

 

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

 

CFRN             -      Contribution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

 

TCC               -      Troops Contributing Country.

 

UN                 -      United Nations.

 

NA                 -      Nigerian Army.

 

NN                 -      Nigerian Navy.

 

NAF               -      Nigerian Air force.

 

PSO               -      Peace Support Operations.

 

UN                 -      United Nations.

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

This research was carried out to understand solar technology: An alternative source of energy for national development. The study was based on the pursuance of basic objectives to ascertain the present state of power generation and supply in Nigeria, to examine the possibility of reviving the energy sector of Nigeria, highlight the advantages of solar technology as it affects national development. In essence the study sets out to contribute to the advancement of knowledge on solar energy in Nigeria as an alternative power supply for national development. The quantitative research technique was utilized during the course of the study. The research explores the historical development of solar energy. It further highlighted solar energy and its applicability and the solar thermal technology. It is important to note that for Nigerian to have a stable power supply, solar energy should be use as an alternative source of power. It is imperative to know that if Nigerian hopes to develop her economy, government should develop solar energy power plant across the nation. Universities should also be encouraged to undergo researches into solar technology. The government should introduce solar in the science curriculum in Nigeria schools at all levels.

 

 

CHAPER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 

1.    The development of a nation brings an effective transformation of its socio-political, economic, cultural, technology and industrial bases. More so, within the particular conception of socio-economic processes which underscores every economic system, economic development, globally, resolves around the issues of the character, structure, pattern and evolution of desirable inter-personal relations of production, allocation and utilization of available resources in any country.1

2.    In order to achieve these and put national development on course, modern operational technologies with respect to production, allocation and utilization is designed and tied strictly to the use of energy in one form or the other.2 Based on the above, it is seen that the quest to rapidly and firmly put the Nigerian state on course of sustainable development is technically a function of adequate and sustained supply and distribution of energy. According to the present Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Sanusi, the Nigeria economy will continue to take a wrong course until the power sector of the nation is put on the right track.3 This underlines the need of an adequate supply of energy to the nation in general and the industrial sector in particular.

3.    The above synopsis indeed, explain the major reason why one of the frustrating and disturbing issue in Nigeria national development today is that of epileptic power supply particularly since the late 1980’s. The situation of the emerging electricity outrage from the supply inadequacy, especially in the late 1990’s was that of persistent electricity power shortage at alarming rates.4 This is in the face of abundant primary electricity resources- coal, natural gas, geothermal, tide, solar, biogas, and biomass to mention but the few. This period was a period that could by tagged the “Dark days” in Nigeria.

4.     Apart from economic and political crisis that grounded socio-political and economic activities in the country, the period of
the 1990s was defined as a period of serious electricity crisis. This period was also tagged to be a crucial or decisive moment; an undesirable turning point; a time of difficulty and distress. To cap it, the ugly situation of electricity shortages and inadequacy shows the emergence of a crisis situation in which electricity supply could not catch up with its high demand. The use and need of alternative power generators then becomes the order of the day. The use of generators has however cost the nation in ways of air pollution in the form of carbon monoxide which has resulted to death especially of member of households. Some other cost has been noise pollution, and the expensive cost of maintaining some of these generators which has at one time or the other stalled industrial production and high cost of production.5

 

5.    This has thus created the need for other safer and less expensive alternatives of power supply. The adoption of solar energy as an alternative power supply then becomes most necessary. This involves the use of lenses or mirrors and tracking system to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam and then converts light into electric current using the photo electric effect, while PV is a device that converts light into electric current using the photo electric effect.6

6.    Solar power has great potential. In 2008, solar power supplied about 0.02% of the world total energy supply.7 The technology is now been popular following the energy crisis that engulfed that world system in the 1990’s. There are many competing technologies, including fourteen types of photo electric cells, such as thin film, mono crystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, and amorphous cells, as well as multiple types of concentrating solar power.       This creates the bases for many alternatives and options even in the solar power energy technology.

 

7.     The adoption of solar technology in Nigeria especially in recent times has been rather dramatic with its increasing role especially in household usage. The Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF) director, Dr. Onyebuci Onyegbule, in a fundraising expressed that the NCF considered the introduction of Photo Voltaic (PV) technology a necessity. The consensus was that GWU Solar should consider rural communities by fabricating small power machines for agriculture, the running of cottage industries, and the introduction of demonstration centres for raising awareness.8

8.    The tropical climate makes solar energy the most viable alternative source of renewable energy in Nigeria.  Harnessing the sun's energy to produce power is an imperative for rural areas where the hope of being connected to the national grid is very remote and extremely expensive. It is however unfortunate that in spite of the inherent high potentials for solar technology in Nigeria and the immense benefits of the use of solar technology Nigeria is yet to take full advantage it.

 

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

9.    It is a fact that the quest for national development in Nigeria relies heavily on the need for a sustainable power supply. Nigeria been a country with a lot of potentials and resources stands a chance to acquire such sustainable power supply. However the country still battles with the high rate of power outages which has not only crippled the business environment of the nation but has also discouraged foreign investment. The development of Nigeria however relies heavily on investment in the industrial sector which in turn is dependent upon a sustainable and adequate power supply in the nation.

10.   The household sector has also suffered greatly from the power problem in Nigeria. Power supply in some areas in Nigeria remains a mirage as people continue to seek for alternative power supply for their homes and small businesses. One of such alternative power supply which however has not been fully tapped is the solar energy. Based on the foregoing, this study seeks to proffer answers to the following:

 

a.    What is the present state of power generation and supply in the country?

b.    Can the energy sector in Nigeria be revived?

c.     Can solar energy be an alternative to the present source of energy in Nigeria?

 

d.    What are the advantages of solar technology as it affects National development?

 

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

11.   The general objective of this study is to examine the possibility of using solar technology as an alternative source of energy for Nigeria national development. Specifically, the study will achieve the following objectives:

a.    Examine the present state of power generation and supply in Nigeria.

b.    Examine the possibility of reviving the energy sector of Nigeria.

c.     Consider the use of solar energy as an alternative source of energy for National development in Nigeria.

d.    Highlight the advantages of solar technology as it affects national development.

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

12.   The importance of this study is underscored by the fact that it would contribute to the advancement of knowledge on solar energy in Nigeria as an alternative power supply for National development. The investigations in this study will also assist Government agencies particularly the Ministry of Power and Energy to appreciate the significance of solar technology in enhancing National development. It will further help in stimulating further research on the solar energy as an alternative power supply. It is also hoped that the study will add to existing literature and body of knowledge on the interrelationship between the concepts of energy supply and National development. It will also provide material for future studies on this topic.

 

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

13.   The issue of the adoption of solar energy as an alternative power supply in Nigeria has been ongoing for a while now. This has led to projects and programmes which have been introduced in Nigeria Since the inception of democracy in Nigeria in 1999, different states in the federation have implemented several measures in developing the power.

14.   In the course of this study, only relevant literature on this topic from the periods of 1999 to 2010 will be referred to. This is because of the need to make the study familiar to current leadership who has been key players in the formulation of existing policies.

 

LIMITATIONS

15.   A major limitation is the dependence of this study on secondary data to analyse the problems in the study. Although the data used was from reputable agencies and bodies, the authenticity of their findings might not be insulated from bias. This however did affect the quality of research carried out as the researcher adopted proper and comparative analysis in arriving at a veritable research work.



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