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The Dynamics Of Conflict Resolution In Africa: Darfur In Perspective
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THE DYNAMICS OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN AFRICA: DARFUR IN PERSPECTIVE

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

1.1   Background to the Study        -      -      -      -      -      1-6

1.2   Statement of Problem     -      -      -      -      -      -      6

1.3   Objectives of Study        -      -      -      -      -      -      6-7

1.4   Research Questions        -      -      -      -      -      -      7-8

1.5   Research Hypothesis       -      -      -      -      -      -      8

1.6   Significance of Study      -      -      -      -      -      -      8

1.7   Theoretical Framework    -      -      -      -      -      -     8-11

1.8   Scope of Study -      -      -      -      -      -      -     -     11

1.9   Limitation        -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -     11-12

1.10 Methodology           -      -      -      -      -      -      -     12-13

1.11 Definition of Terms  -      -      -      -      -      -      -     13-14

       References      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -     15-16

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW                            

2.1   Preamble        -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -    17

2.2   Concept and Dimension of Conflict -      -      -      -    17- 21

2.3   Concept of intra state Conflict        -      -      -      -      -    21- 22

2.4   Causes of Conflict    -      -      -      -      -      -      -    22- 25

       References      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -    26

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                  

3.1   Preamble -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -    27-30

3.2   Causes and Nature of the Darfur Conflict              -      -    30-32

3.3   Conflict Prevention  -      -      -      -      -      -      -    32-33

3.4   Conflict Resolution   -      -      -      -      -      -      -    33-35

3.5   Regional Bodies of Conflict Resolution in Africa      -    35-37

3.6   African Union Conflict Resolution Mechanism -      -    37-38

3.7   African Union Conflict Resolution mechanism

       Applied in Darfur    -      -      -      -      -      -      -    39-42

3.8   United Nations Conflict Resolution in Africa    -      -    42-43

3.9   United Nation Resolution of the Conflict in Darfur   -    44-45

       References      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -    46-48

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   ASSESSEMENT OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION MECHANISM IN THE DARFUR REGION OF SUDAN

4.1   Preamble -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -    49

4.2   Respondents Profile        -      -      -      -      -      -    49-55

4.3   Assessment of the African Union Performance

       in the Resolution of Conflict in the Darfur      -      -    55-63

4.4   Assessment of UNAMID Performance in the

       Resolution of conflict in Darfur       -      -      -      -    63-95 4.5 Data Analysis   -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -    95-97

4.6   Challenges for Conflict Resolution in Africa in the

       Twenty-First Century      -      -      -      -      -      -    97-99

4.7   Conflict Resolution Model for Africa -      -      -      -   99-101

       References      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      - 102-103

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS       

5.1   Summary -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      - 104

5.2   Conclusion      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      - 104-107

5.3   Recommendations   -      -      -      -      -      -      - 107-108

       Bibliography    -      -      -      -      -      -      -      - 109-113

       Appendices     -      -      -      -      -      -      -      - 114-122

 

LIST OF TABLE

Table

Title

Page

(a)

(b)

(c)

1.

Distribution of Respondents by Age And Sex.

50

2.

Distribution of Percentage of Questionnaires Considered for Analysis.

51

3.

Distribution of Respondents by Class.

52

4.

Distribution of Respondents by Academic Qualification.

53

5

Distribution of Respondents on how Equipped is the AU for PSO in Darfur.

58

6.

Distribution of the Extent of Logistics Preparedness is AU for PSO in Darfur.

59

7.

Distribution of response on Level of Climate and Terrain Challenges in Darfur.

61

8.

Distribution of respondent on AU Ability to Minimize Challenges in the Darfur PSO.

62

9.

Distribution of response on AU Performance at Resolving the Darfur Conflict.

64

10.

Distribution of response on UNAMID Organization and Operational Structure for the Achievement of its Mandate.

67

11.

Distribution of response on UNAMID Ability to Protect Civilians in Darfur.

69

12.

Distribution of response on UNAMID Ability to Contribute to Security of Humanitarian Assistance.

71

13.

Distribution of Response on the Adequacy of UNAMID mandate.

74

14.

Distribution on How Equipped is UNAMID for PSO in Darfur.

75

15.

Distribution of response on Level of Climate and Terrain Challenges in Darfur.

77

16.

Distribution of response on UNAMID Ability to Minimize Challenges in the Darfur PSO.

78

17.

Distribution of response on whether the Political Leadership in Darfur is ready for Peaceful Resolution of the Crisis.

81

18.

Distribution of response of SLA leadership ready for Peaceful Resolution.

83

19.

Distribution of Response whether JEM Leadership is ready for Peaceful Resolution.

84

20

Distribution of UNAMID Ability to Monitor and verify Implementation of Agreement.

86

21.

UNAMID Ability to Assist the Political Process in Darfur.

88

22.

The Effect of Multiplicity of Languages among UNAMID Personnel.

91

23.

Problems arising varying Training and Military System among Troop Contributing Countries on the Mission.

93

24.

Extent of UNAMID Contribution to Human Rights and Rule of Law in Darfur.

95

25.

Randomly Selected Responses.

97

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

Figures

Title

Page

(a)

(b)

(c)

1.

Percentage of Respondents by Age And Sex.

50

2.

Percentage of Questionnaires Considered for Analysis.

52

3.

Percentage of Respondents by Class.

53

4.

Percentage of Respondents by Academic Qualification.

54

5

Percentage of Respondents on how Equipped is the AU for PSO in Darfur.

58

6.

Percentage of the Extent of Logistics Preparedness is AU for PSO in Darfur.

60

7.

Percentage of response on Level of Climate and Terrain Challenges in Darfur.

62

8.

Percentage of respondent on AU Ability to Minimize Challenges in the Darfur PSO.

63

9.

Percentage of response on AU Performance at Resolving the Darfur Conflict.

64

10.

Percentage of response on UNAMID Organization and Operational Structure for the Achievement of its Mandate.

68

11.

Percentage of response on UNAMID Ability to Protect Civilians in Darfur.

 70

12.

Percentage of response on UNAMID Ability to Contribute to Security of Humanitarian Assistance.

 72

13.

Percentage of Response on the Adequacy of UNAMID mandate.

 75

14.

Percentage on How Equipped is UNAMID for PSO in Darfur.

 76

15.

Percentage of response on Level of Climate and Terrain Challenges in Darfur.

 78

(a)

(b)

(c)

16.

Percentage of response on UNAMID Ability to Minimize Challenges in the Darfur PSO.

 79

17.

Percentage of response on whether  the Political Leadership in Darfur is ready for Peaceful Resolution of the Crisis.

 82

18.

Percentage of response of SLA leadership ready for Peaceful Resolution.

 84

19.

Percentage of Response whether JEM Leadership is ready for Peaceful Resolution.

 85

20

Percentage of UNAMID Ability to Monitor and verify Implementation of Agreement.

 87

21.

UNAMID Ability to Assist the Political Process in Darfur.

 89

 

 

 

22.

Percentage of response on the Effect of Multiplicity of Language among UNAMID Personne.l

 92

23.

Percentage  of response on the Problems arising varying Training and Military System among Troop Contributing Countries on the Mission.

 94

24.

Percentage  of response on the Extent of UNAMID Contribution to Human Rights and Rule of Law in Darfur.

96

25.

Randomly selected responses.

97

 

ABSTRACT

       This study was set out to examine the dynamics of conflict resolution in Africa with the Darfur region of Sudan in perspective.  The study became necessary as thousands of lives and properties worth millions of dollars have been lost to violent conflict in the region since 2003.  The AU and UN as the umbrella organisations of conflict resolution for African continent are the forerunners to put an end to the conflict in Darfur.  The study explored the causes of the conflict and the groups behind it.  The study further examined the constraints faced by the AU/UN in restoring peace to the region.

 

        Data for the study were collected through questionnaires, structured and unstructured interviews with knowledgeable people on the subject of discuss. The study revealed that the major cause of the conflict was social injustice manifested in real or perceived marginalization.  The actors in the conflict include the GOS/A, the JEM, SLA/M and the Janjaweed among others.  Inability of the AU to solely resolve the conflict is attributed to lack of fund, inadequate operational equipment, lack of cooperation on the side of the factions and internal challenges within the AMIS amongst others. The AU could not have achieved any meaningful resolution in Darfur if it had operated in proof with UN.

 

        The study also proffered a conflict resolution model for Africa that would assist the AU in achieving its goals in subsequent conflict situation in the continent. These includes establishment of standing conflict resolution body similar to UNDPKO, conflict management centre tasked with providing early warming to conflicts in the continent among others. Finally, the study made some recommendations that if properly implemented would enable the AU to resolve conflict in the continent.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0   GENERAL INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 

        The crucial condition for the viability of a state lies in its ability to provide socio-economic and political security for its citizens.  In functional and politically matured state, the provision of this security is regarded as a basic right of the citizens.  The failure of a state to provide these basic rights often gave rise to the feeling of insecurity which may lead to variances thus leading to conflict.

 

        Conflicts become more apparent when groups of people on security basis believe that they have to come together for their security and survival.   This feeling is a function of crisis pervading human society.  Considering the trend of crisis in the world today, conflict can be regarded as an inevitable phenomenon of human society.  Conflict is inevitable because it often emanates from individuals or groups in reaction to unpleasant socio-economic and political situation within the society. Conflict is therefore seen as a multi-dimensional social process which is common and an essential feature of human existence Isaac Olawale (1998:15). In its simplest form, conflict refers to the pursuit of incompatible goals by individuals or groups.  In essence, conflict situations arise when individuals or groups identify a goal, which they want to secure in order to satisfy material interest, needs or values.  When these perceptions lead to actions that come up against the interest, needs or values of others, a conflict occurs (Ibid:16).  

 

        Globally, countries are increasingly involved in one conflict or the other.  This has taken different dimension with the advent of modern technology and the proliferation of arms struggle consequent to the end of the cold war.  Statistically, the current 18 wars and armed conflicts that are active and fought globally in different levels of intensity and at different stages of civil war, Africa accounts for 90 per cent, Evans and Newham (1992:52).  Consequently, there are heightened concerns about sustained violent conflicts in Africa since the end of the cold war. 

 

        During the 1980s, Africa was torn by 9 wars and almost half of the war-related deaths in the world were in Africa.  As a result, Africa accounted for over 8 million of the 22 million refugees world wide, Satgneth (1996:16). Conflicts in Africa have assumed alarming proportion and constitute impediment to Africa’s development (ibid:30). These conflicts have wrecked devastating consequences on Africa in terms of societal fragmentation and the regionalisation of domestic civil wars, which affect regional peace and security.  Consequently, some western media commentators like Riz Khan of Aljazeera among others have painted contemporary Africa as the ‘Heat of darkness, hopeless continent and the coming anarchy’ that is capable of threatening international peace and security (Ibid:25).

        In the last two decades, Africa has been plagued by intra-state conflicts.  Ethnic and religious clashes were common in most of African countries, with some escalating to full scale civil wars as in Darfur, Somalia, Liberia, Democratic Republic of Congo and Cote d’ Ivoire (Ibid:31). These alarming incidence of medium and high intensity conflicts had their own attendant consequences in deaths, instability, security and refugees.  This situation has given rise to serious breakdown of law and order in many societies, bringing in its wake, immense insecurity and human suffering of great dimensions. 

 

        In response to this changing context of conflict, several African conflict resolution initiatives have come to fore leading to the dictum, ‘African solutions to African problems Boutros Ghali (1992:16).  Some of these conflict resolution initiatives include the African Union Peace and Security Council (AUPSC) and the AU Standby Force. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Ceasefire Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) also made tremendous efforts to bring peace to Liberia and Sierra Leone. The AU is also spearheading efforts to bring peace to Darfur through her contribution of men and material to the AU-UN Hybrid Mission in Darfur (UNAMID). 

 

        Sudan has the largest land mass in Africa with about 2,376 million square kilometers of land and 129,810 square kilometer of territorial water and a population of about 39 million people, United States of America Central Intelligence Agency (2004:168). The people are predominantly Muslims and their major occupation is farming (Ibid:169). The history of violent crisis in Sudan dates back to 1955 when the southerner part rebelled against the GoS and rebels from the southern part of the country clashed.  Since then, the GoS has been unable to quell the reflection, nor bring about peaceful resolution of the grievances of the southerners, thus the sporadic occurrence of crisis.



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