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The Recurring Incidents Of Ethno-Religious Conflicts In Nigeria: A Perspective On National Security Challenges For Nigeria
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THE RECURRING INCIDENTS OF ETHNO-RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA: A PERSPECTIVE ON NATIONAL SECURITY CHALLENGES FOR NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND………………………………………..           1-5

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM……………………..      5-6

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY…………………………...    6-7

1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY…………………………   7

1.5   SCOPE OF THE STUDY………………………………….      7

METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………......   8

1.6   LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY……………………… 8

1.7   ENDNOTES……………………………………………………     9

 

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

2.1   CONFLICT……………………………………………………      10-12

2.2   ETHNICITY……………………………………………………..   13-15

2.3   RELIGION……………………………………………………….   15-16

2.4   ETHNO-RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS………………………… 16-17

2.5   NATIONAL SECURITY……………………………………….  18-19

ETHNO-RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS AND NATIONAL

2.6   SECURITY………………………………………………..          20-21

2.7   SUMMARY………………………………………………………..  21-22

2.8   ENDNOTES…………………………………………………….    23-25

 

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

3.1   RESEARCH DESIGN…………………………………           26-27

3.2   AREA OF STUDY……………………………………………….. 27

3.3   SAMPLING AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE……………….27-28

3.4   POPULATION…………………………………………………….28

3.5   INSTRUMENT/METHODOLOGY FOR DATA

COLLECTION…………………………………………………….         28-29

3.6   RELIABILITY AND VALIDATION OF INSTRUMENTS…29

3.7   WEAKNESS OF THE STUDY………………………………… 30

3.8   SUMMARY………………………………………………………… 30

3.9   ENDNOTES………………………………………………………….31

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

 

THE RECURRING INCIDENTS OF ETHNO-RELIGIOUS

CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA: PERSPECTIVE ON NATIONAL

SECURITY CHALLENGES FOR NIGERIA…………………..     32-53

DATA ANALYSIS…………………………………………………..        53-54

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ETHNO-RELIGIOUS

CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA……………………………………….          54

RELIGIOUS AND ETHNIC INTOLERANCE……………….          55-56

COMPETITION FOR SCARE RESOURCES……………….          56-57

HIGH ILLETRACY LEVEL……………………………………….          57-58

POLITICAL REPRESENTATION……………………………..           58-59

 

CORRUPTION…………………………………………………….     59-60

INDIGENE/SETTLER DISPUTES…………………………….          60-61

IMPLICATIONS OF ETHNO-RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS ON

NATIONAL SECURITY…………………………………………      61-62

SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS……………………………………….            62-64

ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS………………………………….            65-66

POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS……………………………………           66-67

MEASURES TO MANAGE ETHNO-RELIGIOUS

CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA………………………………………            68-71

ENDNOTES…………………………………………………………            72-73

 

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

CONCLUSION…………………………………………………..             74-76

RECOMMENDATIONS………………………………………..             77

ANNEX..….……………………………………………………….             A-1-4

ANNEX B………………………………………………………….             B-1-14

 

REFERENCES

BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………….....             79-83

 

LIST OF TABLES

Serial

Title of Table

Page No

(a)

(b)

(c)

1.

Distribution of Respondents according to Age

32

2.

Distribution of Respondents according to Sex

34

3.

Distribution of Respondents according to Marital Status

35

4.

Distribution of Respondents according to Level of Education

37

5.

Distribution of Respondents according to Employment

39

6.

Distribution of Respondents according to Major Occupation

40

7.

Distribution of Respondents according to Crisis Witnesses

42

8.

Distribution of Respondents according to Factors Causing Crisis

43

9.

Effect of Ethno-Religious Crisis on National Security

45

10.

Level of Impact of Ethno-Religious Crisis on National Security

46

11.

Effects of Ethno-Religious Crisis on Individuals

47

12.

Distribution of Respondents according to Awareness and Acceptance of Measures Taken for Resolving Ethno-Religious Crisis

49

13.

Effect of Measures taken to Resolving Ethno-Religious Conflict

51

LIST OF FIGURES

Serial

Title of Table

Page No

(a)

(b)

(c)

1.

Pie Chart Showing Percentage Distribution of Respondents according to Age

33

2.

Pie Chart Showing Percentage Distribution of Respondents according to Sex

34

3.

Bar Chart Showing Percentage Distribution of Respondents according to Marital Status

36

4.

Bar Chart Showing Percentage Distribution of Respondents according to Level of Education

38

5.

Pie Chart Showing Percentage Distribution of Respondents according to Employment

39

6.

Bar Chart Showing Percentage Distribution of Respondents according to Major Occupation

41

7.

Pie Chart Showing Percentage Distribution of Respondents according to Crisis Witnesses

42

8.

Bar Chart Showing Percentage Distribution of Respondents according to Factors Causing Crisis

44

9.

Pie Chart Showing Percentage Effect of Ethno-Religious Crisis on National Security

45

10.

Bar Chart Showing Percentage Level of Impact of Ethno-Religious Crisis on National Security

46

11.

Effects of Ethno-Religious Crisis on Individuals

48

(a)

(b)

(c)

12.

Bar Chart Showing Percentage Distribution of Respondents according to Awareness and Acceptance of Measures Taken for Resolving Ethno-Religious Crisis

50

13.

Bar Chart Showing Percentage Effect of Measures taken to Resolving Ethno-Religious Conflict

52

 

ABSTRACT

 

1.    Ethno-religious conflict has been one of the most pervasive and enduring conflicts in Nigeria due to its multi-ethnic nature and diverse socio-cultural background. The need to examine these conflicts and how they can be effectively managed in the country necessitated the study. The scope of the study covered the major ethno-religious conflicts in Nigeria since 1999 with the objectives of examining the causes, the political, economic and social implication of these conflicts and ways of managing and resolving them.

 

2.    The study also appraised the mechanism for conflict management and resolution in Nigeria. Information and data for the study was based on documents, published and unpublished texts, newspaper and magazines. Analysis of the data showed that conflict is a social phenomenon. It cannot be eliminated from any society, but can only be managed through effective mechanism put in place by government. The study identified the freedom of expression arising from the transition to democratic rule as the main cause of the recent ethno-religious conflicts in the country. Other causes of ethno-religious conflicts were identified, and traced to poverty and high level of corruption in the country.

   

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0    GENERAL INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   BACKGROUND

 

          The security of a state translates to its capacity to protect its citizens as well as national assets from both internal and external threats. National  security entails a condition in which citizens of a country enjoy free, peaceful and safe environment; and have access to resources which will enable them enjoy the basic necessities of life (Enahoro,2004). It also guarantees individuals and groups the freedom to carry out their legitimate businesses without hindrances. A nation’s security may be undermined by either external or internal conflicts resulting from political, social, religious and economic misunderstanding within it. These conflicts usually reflect varying interest between two or more opposing forces, communities or groups within or outside the society. These may lead to competition, tension, hostility, fear and suspicion; and usually to one form of aggression or the other among the competing parties (Chaplin, 1979:3).  Conflicts also affect social, political religious and economic lives of societies.

 

Religion is value based; as such people are usually emotionally attached to it and less tolerant with any attack on it. Religious conflict can be described as disagreement from differences in faith and belief (Dentsch, 2001:3).  However, most conflicts referred to as religious in Nigeria may actually be ethnic based. Ethnic conflicts are struggles for or rights to certain needs such as land education political autonomy or representation and preservation or identity among other demands. Ethno-religious conflicts in Nigerian could therefore be described as a situation that often results in conflict when 2 or more ethnic or religious groups desire to achieve a goal. Obviously these conflicts are not confined to any specific geo-political region of Nigeria. Ethno-religious conflict is not a new phenomenon in Nigeria. For instance, there was a politically or ethnically motivated riot known as Kano Riot in 1953. The 1962 and 1964 Tiv riots, the 1969 Agbekoya farmers uprising and the 1979 Kafanchan Christian-Muslin religious disturbances were thought to be politically or religiously motivated. Also, there are many instances of ethno-religious crises in the country such as
the 1980 Bakolori farmers uprising in Sokoto state, the Maitasine intra religious disturbances, the Ife-Modakeke conflict in 1986 and the numerous riots in universities and tertiary institutions at various times in the country. There was also riot in Kano in 1991 over an open air Christian crusade by a German based evangelist Rev Reinhard Bonke’s. Within 1993 and 1996, the Ugep and Idomi ethnic groups in Cross Rivers State were also involved in communal conflicts. The list is in exhaustive. These conflicts have negatively affected political and socio-economic activities in the affected states and in the country as a whole especially in the areas of commerce and tourism.

 

A vital interest in Nigeria’s national defence objectives is to ensure her survival and security .The Federal Government of Nigeria in an attempt to eradicate the threat posed by ethnic and religious conflicts have put measures in place to prevent its continued re-occurrence. The increase in the number of conflicts and the nature of violence associated with each crisis and the sophistication of weapons employed in recent ethnic and religious continues to makes Nigeria insecure.  These emerging trends have thus proven the government’s measures to combat the crises as inadequate. Despite federal and state government preventive efforts, ethnic and religious crises have continued to occur sporadically in Nigeria. The need to curtail the re-occurring incidents of ethnic and religious crises therefore poses a challenge not only to government but citizens of Nigeria. Consequently, this research is interested in finding solutions to the recurring incidents of ethnic and religious crises in Nigeria. The recurring ethnic crises in Nigeria have encouraged the formation of ethnic based groups. Some well known examples of these groups are the Ijaw militants in the Niger Delta, the Movement for the actualisation of the state of Biafra, Arewa People’s Congress and the Odua People’s Congress. The activities of these groups agitating for emancipation along ethnic lines are of serious concern. The situation if unchecked could have a ripple effect on the other parts of the country, thus encouraging other ethnic groups to pick up arms in furtherance of their aspirations. Additionally there are emerging threats from activities of members of religious groups, like the Boko Haram group. The activities of these groups with the support of other well known global movements could breed tension and eventually lead to flash points like Kano, Jos, Kaduna amongst others.

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          The rising spate of ethno-religious conflicts in the country has become a dreadful phenomenon. These conflicts are known to have posed some threats to security, peaceful       co-existence of various ethnic groups and disruption to      socio-economic lives of the people, especially in areas where they occur. Genuine and meaningful development for sustainable growth can only be achieved in a peaceful and secure environment where security of lives and properties are guaranteed.

 

According to Elaigwu, the period 1999 to 2007 witnessed a rise in ethnic and religious crises in Nigeria. The current trend of violence associated with crises has assumed an alarming proportion that was hitherto of ethno-religious conflicts in the country (Elaigwu, 2004).      It is against this background that an attempt will be made to address the causes and security implications of ethnic and religious conflicts in Nigeria, in order to enable the federal government find solutions to stop the re-occurrence. Therefore, the study seeks to find answers to the following:

a.      What are the factors that influence ethno-religious conflicts in Nigeria?

         b.      What are the implications of ethno-religious conflicts on national security?

     c.       What measures can be adopted to prevent these conflicts?

 

1.3         OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

          The objectives of this research are as follows:

a.      To examine the factors that influence ethnic and religious conflicts in Nigeria.

b.      To examine the security implications of ethno-religious conflicts on Nigeria



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